Fluoride Action Network


Introduction: Excessive intake of fluorides can lead to the development of fluorosis, a serious public health issue in India. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of community defluoridation in preventing fluorosis in Kaiwara village.

Methodology: This community interventional trial was conducted in Kaiwara village, Karnataka, after obtaining ethical clearance. The study included 903 participants; preintervention data were collected by recording the required parameters. The postinterventional study was carried out 2 years after installing the reverse osmosis plant. Data from pre- and post-intervention study were compared.

Results: Dean’s index showed no significant change in the pre- and post-intervention period for its various categories (P = 0.543). However, the mean urine fluoride levels were found to be decreased significantly (Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of providing defluorinated water to the village population as a potential solution for fluorosis.



Fluorosis is an endemic disease that has affected 70 million individuals and is prevalent in 22 states of India, particularly in parched parts of the country.[1] The process of removal of harmful fluoride from water is called defluoridation.[2] The world’s ground fluoride stores are estimated to be 85 million tons, of which almost 12 million tons are in India.[3] As Kaiwara, a part of Chikkaballapur district, Karnataka, has no alternate source of water, it is dependent solely on groundwater through bore wells for its water supply.[4]

Advanced defluoridation procedures have commenced in India. Nalgonda technique is one of them, which utilizes alum and lime combination in a two-step process. The process has disadvantages like the undesirable taste of treated water, high-cost maintenance, temperature, and the presence of silicate ions.[5] Reverse osmosis (RO) established by Jean-Antoine Nollet in 1748 is presently the most effective method in terms of fluoride removal.[6]

In a study conducted by Arvind et al. in Kaiwara and the villages under Kaiwara Primary Health Center, it was found that of the 1544 children examined, 42.1% and 8.4% had dental fluorosis and genu valgum, respectively,[4] which clearly proved increased consumption of fluoride. This study is aimed to assess the impact of community defluoridation in Kaiwara, a village endemic for hydric fluorosis…


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*Read full-text study online at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877423/