Fluoride Action Network


Fluoride can affect the metabolism and physiological functioning of humans and aquatic organisms like any hazardous substance when it exceeds its permissible limits and PNEC values. The fluoride content of the lake water and sediment samples collected from different locations was determined to assess its risks to humans and its ecological toxicity in Lake Burullus. Statistical analyses show that the proximity of the supplying drains had an impact on the fluoride content. Fluoride ingestion and skin contact in lake water and sediment during swimming for child, female and male were evaluated at 95, 90, and 50%. The values of hazard quotient (HQ) and total hazard quotient (THQ) for children, females and males were less than one, reflecting that exposure to fluoride through ingestion and skin-to-skin contact while swimming poses no risks to human health. PNEC values for fluoride in lake water and sediment were estimated using the equilibrium partitioning method (EPM). The ecological risk assessment of fluoride for acute and chronic toxicity was performed for the three trophic levels based on the PNEC, the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50), the median lethal dose (LC50), the no-observed effect concentration (NOEC), and the 5% lethal concentration (EC05). The risk quotient (RQ), mixture risk characterization ratios (RCRmix), relative contribution (RC), toxic unit (TU), and sum of toxic units (STU) were estimated. The acute and chronic RCRmix(STU) and RCRmix(MEC/PNEC) produced similar values for the three trophic levels in lake water and sediment, indicating that invertebrates are the most sensitive species to fluoride. These results of evaluating the environmental risks of fluoride in lake water and sediments reflected its significant impact on aquatic organisms living in the lake area in the long term.

*Original full-text article online at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0141113623001575