We have evaluated the ameliorative effect of vitamin D on fluoride-induced embryotoxicity in pregnant rats. Oral administration of sodium fluoride (NaF; 40 mg/kg body weight) from days 6 to 19 of gestation caused, as compared with control, significantly lowered body weight, feed consumption, absolute uterine weight and number of implantations. As compared with the control, higher incidence of skeletal (presence of wavy ribs, 14th rib, dumbbell-shaped 5th sternebrae, incomplete ossification of skull) and visceral (subcutaneous haemorrhage) abnormalities was recorded in the foetuses of fluoride-treated pregnant rat. Vitamin D (2 ng/0.2 ml olive oil/animal/day po) treatment significantly ameliorated the fluoride-induced reductions in body weight, feed consumption and absolute uterine weight. As compared with fluoride-treated alone, the total percentage of skeletal and visceral abnormalities observed in foetuses was significantly lowered in fluoride plus vitamin D-treated animals. These findings suggest that vitamin D treatment significantly reduced the severity and incidence of fluoride-induced embryotoxicity. The ameliorative effect of vitamin D against skeletal and visceral abnormalities could be due to stimulation of intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, thus raising the plasma calcium and phosphate concentrations.