- NaF has profound dose-dependent effect on bones in SD rats.
- A total of 63 differentially expressed proteins are identified between the NaF- treated groups and control group.
- Some key proteins and signal transduction pathways are involved affecting the bone tissue.
- Twelve (12) proteins are being first time reported to be associated with the fluoride study on bone tissue.
Long-term excessive intake of fluoride (F) could lead to chronic fluorosis. To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, present study is designed to elucidate the effect of fluoride on proteome expression of bone in sodium fluoride (NaF)-treated SD rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to determine the severity of osteofluorosis, and bone samples were submitted for iTRAQ analysis. The results showed that the cortical thickness and trabecular area of femur bone in medium- and high-dose groups were higher than in control group. Contrary to this, trabecular area was reduced in the low-dose group, indicating that the bone mass was increased in medium- and high-dose groups, and decreased in the low-dose group. Thirteen (13), 35, and 34 differentially expressed proteins were identified in low-, medium-, and high-dose group, respectively. The medium- and high-dose groups shared a more similar protein expression pattern. These proteins were mainly associated with collagen metabolism, proteoglycans (PGs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), etc. The results suggested that the effect of NaF on SD rats is in a dose-dependent manner. Some key proteins found here may be involved in affecting the bone tissues and bone marrow or muscle, and account for the complex pathology and clinical symptoms of fluorosis.
Bone response to fluoride exposure is influenced by genetics
Genetic factors influence the effects of fluoride (F) on amelogenesis and bone homeostasis but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. A label-free proteomics approach was employed to identify and evaluate changes in bone protein expression in two mouse strains having different susceptibilities to develop dental fluorosis and to alter bone
Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis
Although fluoride increases bone mass, the newly formed bone may have reduced strength. To assess the effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in osteoporosis, we conducted a four-year prospective clinical trial in 202 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures who were randomly assigned to receive sodium fluoride
A proposed mechanism of the mitogenic action of fluoride on bone cells: inhibition of the activity of an osteoblastic acid phosphatase
Fluoride (F) is a potent inhibitor of osteoblastic acid phosphatase activity with an apparent Ki value (10 to 100 mumol/L) that corresponds to F concentrations that increase bone cell proliferation and bone formation in vivo and in vitro. This high sensitivity of acid phosphatase to F inhibition appeared to be
Prevalence of osteoporosis in high- and low-fluoride areas in North Dakota
Roentgenograms of the lateral lumbar area of the spine were obtained from 1,015 subjects over age 45 who were residing in North Dakota. Three hundred lived in an area where the fluoride content of the water supply was high, 4 to 5.8 ppm, and 715 in an area where it
The toxic effect of fluoride on MG-63 osteoblast cells is also dependent on the production of nitric oxide
Some soda-lime-phospho-silicate glasses, such as Hench's Bioglass(®) 45S5, form bone-like apatite on their surface when bound to living bone. To improve their osteointegration for clinical purposes, the fluoride insertion in their structure has been proposed, but we recently showed that fluoride causes oxidative damage in human MG-63 osteoblasts, via inhibition
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Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
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