The early diagnosis of dental caries has an important role in pregnancy, as it allows establishing preventive measures. Besides the clinical examination, there are modern preclinical ways of detecting odontal lesions such as electrical conductivity (EC) and quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF). Dental radiography and three-dimensional (3D) orthopantomography, although useful, are forbidden during pregnancy (6). Bacteriological evaluation and early detection of demineralized areas allow preventive measures aimed at stopping the destructive process and permit measures for the restoration of the damaged dental structures.
Regarding the treatment of caries, superficial coronal odontal lesions in enamel can be treated noninvasively by remineralization. Reconstruction, obturation or inscruction therapy involves loss of dental material, sometimes even healthy one; they are also expensive and stressful for the patient and therefore, remineralization and sealing of dental retention areas is the treatment of choice for children and pregnant women (8). For the restoration of the damaged dental structure, fluoride topics, laques or fluoride gels are applied locally (3).
An adequate diet during pregnancy plays an important role in maintaining the general and oral health; it must be high in calories, proteins, vitamins and minerals, and it must have a balanced proportion of salts, carbohydrates and lipids. As with the rest of the population, proper dental brushing at least twice a day in the morning and evening as well as the use of yarn thread are effective ways of oral hygiene, which also prevent the appearance and evolution of dental caries (1).
… In dental caries prophylaxis in general, and especially in pregnant women, the use of a fluoride-containing mouthwash in the form of sodium or selenium fluoride (sodium or selenium 1-2%) is recommended along with a correct brushing technique. Fluoride-containing chewing gum is a pleasant vector, acting both locally and generally. It stimulates salivary secretion by increasing the interproximal flow. Chewing gum reduces food stores by about 80%, as well as microbial plaque. Varieties containing xylitol reduce the number of Streptococci mutans and also increase the pH of the mouth and bacterial plaque (7). Investigations, followed by appropriate instrumentation methods, are decisive to the preservation of dental structures. Introduction of fluoridated remineralizing substances contributes to the achievement of contemporary dentistry goals (8).
… It has been observed that, at a relatively short time after conception, dentinal hyperesthesia occurs, especially in the cervical area of the teeth, at the erosion, wear or abrasion zones, being triggered by temperature change and sapids (sweet, sour). This is particularly noticeable in the first trimester of pregnancy as a result of vomiting and consumption of acidic foods.
For this reason, it is recommended to rinse one’s mouth with mouthwash (Listerine) or 5% bicarbonate solution after each vomit or acidic food ingestion. Special protective shields (bite guard) can also be used along with a gel or fluoridated solutions (1).