- Plasma fluoride is related to lower testosterone and estradiol in male adolescents.
- Water fluoride is inversely associated with SHBG in male adolescents.
- Plasma fluoride is inversely associated with SHBG in female children.
Fluoride mediated disruption of sex steroid hormones has been demonstrated in animals. However, evidence from humans was limited and contradictory, especially for children and adolescents. Based on data of the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2013–2016, a total of 3392 subjects aged 6–19 years were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Both plasma and water fluoride levels were quantified electrometrically using the ion-specific electrode. Sex steroid hormones of total testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were tested in serum. Percent changes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in sex steroid hormones associated with tertiles of fluoride levels (setting the first as reference) were estimated using adjusted linear regression models by stratification of gender and age. Compared with subjects at the first tertile of plasma fluoride, percent changes (95% CIs) in testosterone were -8.08% (-17.36%, 2.25%) and -21.65% (-30.44%, -11.75%) for the second and third tertiles, respectively (P trend <0.001). Male adolescents at the third tertile of plasma fluoride had decreased levels of testosterone (percent change = -21.09%, 95% CIs = -36.61% to -1.77%). Similar inverse associations were also found when investigating the relationships between plasma fluoride and estradiol. Besides, the data indicated decreased levels of SHBG associated with water and plasma fluoride among the male adolescents (percent change of the third tertile = -9.39%, 95% CIs = -17.25% to -0.78%) and female children (percent change of the second tertile = -10.78%, 95% CIs = -17.55% to – 3.45%), respectively. The data indicated gender- and age-specific inverse associations of fluoride in plasma and water with sex steroid hormones of total testosterone, estradiol and SHBG in U.S. children and adolescents. Prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm the causality.
A Rat Experimental Study of the Relationship Between Fluoride Exposure and Sensitive Biomarkers.
Chronic excessive fluoride exposure impairs human health and damages not only the skeletal system and the teeth but also the soft tissues such as the brain, liver, kidneys, pancreas and spinal cord. However, there is limited research regarding the exposure levels and sensitive biomarkers. This study was aimed to establish
Fluoride exposure changed the structure and the expressions of HSP related genes in testes of pubertal rats.
Previous studies have indicated that fluoride exposure damaged the male reproductive function; however, the cellular mechanism of fluoride-induced testicular toxicity is still unclear. In this study, twenty-two female pregnant Wistar rats were allotted randomly to two groups: control (deionized water) and sodium fluoride (NaF, contain F-: 67.86 mg/L) groups. After delivery,
Assessment of the influence of meal type on fluoride absorption due to ingestion of professionally applied gels
AIMS: The aim of this study is to assess the influence of eating, prior to application of professionally used gels, on the rate of fluoride absorption due to the ingestion of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After fasting for 12 hours, 16 adult volunteers (> 65 kg) ingested
Fluoride ingestion and thyroid function in children resident of naturally fluoridated areas - An observational study.
Background: Literature shows association between systemic fluorides with water fluoride level above 3ppm and endocrine disorders especially related to thyroid. Aim & Objectives: To estimate serum T3, T4, TSH, Fluoride levels among children with normal nutritional status and optimal iodine intake, residing in three different ranges of drinking water fluoride levels
Modulation of fluoride toxicity in rats by calcium carbonate and by withdrawal of fluoride exposure.
In order to assess the effect of calcium on the toxic effects of fluoride, adult female Wistar rats were treated with sodium fluoride (NaF, 500 ppm in drinking water) alone or in combination with calcium carbonate (CaCO3, 50 mg/kg by oral intubation) daily for 60 days. Food, water and fluoride
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Fluoride's Effect on the Male Reproductive System -- In Vitro Studies
Carefully controlled in vitro studies have found that direct exposure of fluoride to the testes or semen inhibits testosterone production and damages sperm. While researchers have known since the 1930s that mega concentrations of fluoride can completely (but reversibly) immobilize sperm, it was not until the 1970s and 1980s that researchers found that relatively modest concentrations of fluoride could cause damage prior to complete immobilization.
Fluoride's Effect on Male Reproductive System - Human Studies
Consistent with in vitro and animal research, studies of human populations have reported associations between fluoride exposure and damage to the male reproductive system. Most notably, a scientist at the Food & Drug Administration reported in 1994 that populations in the United States with more than 3 ppm fluoride in their water had lower "total fertility rates" than populations with lower fluoride levels.
Fluoride's Effect on Male Reproductive System: Animal Studies
Over 60 studies on animals (including rats, mice, roosters, and rabbits) have found that fluoride adversely impacts the male reproductive system. These studies have repeatedly found the following effects: (1) decreases in testosterone levels; (2) reduced sperm motility; (3) altered sperm morphology; (4) reduced sperm quantity; (5) increased oxidative stress; (6) and reduced capacity to breed.
Fluoride's Effect on Male Reproductive System -- The "Sprando/Collins" Anomaly
In contrast to the findings of over 60 animal studies from other research teams, a series of studies by FDA researchers Sprando & Collins reported virtually no evidence of reproductive toxicity among animals treated with very high levels of fluoride exposure. The reasons for this discrepancy remains unclear. Excerpts from Sprando/Collins' Studies: "This study
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