- First review on co-occurrence perspectives of Arsenic and Fluoride in the groundwater.
- As and F co-occurrences is quite common yet concealed owing to one being dominant.
- Arid areas are more suitable for co-occurrence with few reports in the Alluvium plains.
- Local hydro-geochemical processes and seasonality greatly affect co-contamination.
- Co-contamination can have severe health and socio-economic impacts around the World.
Arsenic (As) and fluoride (F–) are the two most conspicuous contaminants, in terms of distribution and menace, in aquifers around the world. While the majority of studies focus on the individual accounts of their hydro-geochemistry, the current work is an effort to bring together the past and contemporary works on As and F– co-occurrence. Co-occurrence in the context of As and F– is a broad umbrella term and necessarily does not imply a positive correlation between the two contaminants. In arid oxidized aquifers, healthy relationships between As and F– is reported owing desorption based release from the positively charged (hydr)oxides of metals like iron (Fe) under alkaline pH. In many instances, multiple pathways of release led to little or no correlation between the two, yet there were high concentrations of both at the same time. The key influencer of the strength of the co-occurrence is seasonality, environment, and climatic conditions. Besides, the existing primary ion and dissolved organic matter also affect the release and enrichment of As-F– in the aquifer system. Anthropogenic forcing in the form of mining, irrigation return flow, extraction, recharge, and agrochemicals remains the most significant contributing factor in the co-occurrence. The epidemiological indicate that the interface of these two interacting elements concerning public health is considerably complicated and can be affected by some uncertain factors. The existing explanations of interactions between As-F are indecisive, especially their antagonistic interactions that need further investigation. “Multi-contamination perspectives of groundwater” is an essential consideration for the overarching question of freshwater sustainability.
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653520303192
Potential Co-exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride and Biomonitoring Equivalents for Mexican Children.
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Fluoride and arsenic contamination in drinking water due to mining activities and its impact on local area population.
Contamination of arsenic and fluoride in drinking water reservoirs is a serious health issue in the Sibi district, Balochistan, Pakistan. The contamination has already been affecting a large population of the district. Dental fluorosis and dermatitis are the most common reported illnesses in the area. This study focused on the
Coal-burning roasted corn and chili as the cause of dental fluorosis for children in southwestern China.
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Adverse effects of fluoride and/or arsenic on the cerebral hemisphere of mice and recovery by some antidotes
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[A clinical study on the syndrome of arsenism and fluorosis].
A clinical study was made on 65 cases with the syndrome of arsenism and fluorosis (SAD) from March 1982 to August 1989. All the cases with this syndrome had drunk a well water containing arsenic 0.6 mg/L and fluorine 3.45 mg/L for a long period. The patients all had the
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