OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship between spermatogenic cell apoptosis and serum estradiol level in rats exposed to fluoride. METHODS: A total of 30 male Wistar rats were allocated into six groups randomly. The six experimental groups were 28-day control group, 28-day low-dose fluoride treatment group, 28-day high-dose fluoride treatment group, 38-day control group, 38-day low-dose fluoride treatment group, and 38-day high-dose fluoride treatment group. The fluorosis model was acquired by subcutaneous injection of NaF solution. The content of NaF in testis was measured by using fluorine selective electrode. The serum estradiol level was radioimmunochemically detected. And the apoptotic spermatogenic cells were quantitatively measured by TUNEL. RESULTS: The content of NaF in testis and the ratio of apoptotic spermatogenic cell in fluoride treatment groups significantly increased with increased experimental dosage and prolonged experimental period (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the serum estradiol level significantly decreased (P < 0.05), which was negatively correlated with the content of NaF in testis as well as the ratio of apoptotic spermatogenic cell (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Excessive fluoride could lead disturbance to serum estradiol level during some range of dose and time, which is an important factor to spermatogenic cell apoptosis.