OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of water fluoridated to 1 ppm on the incidence of hip fractures in the elderly.
DESIGN: Ecological cohort.
SETTING: The incidence of femoral neck fractures in patients 65 years of age or older was compared in three communities in Utah, one with and two without water fluoridated to 1 ppm.
PATIENTS: All patients with hip fractures who were 65 years of age and older over a 7-year period in the three communities, excluding (1) those with revisions of hip fractures, (2) those in whom the hip fracture was anything but a first diagnosis, (3) those in whom metastatic disease was present, or (4) those in whom the fracture was a second fracture (n = 246).
OUTCOME MEASURE: Rate of hospital discharge for hip fracture.
RESULTS: The relative risk for hip fracture for women in the fluoridated area was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.46) and for men was 1.41 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.81) relative to the nonfluoridated areas.
CONCLUSIONS: We found a small but significant increase in the risk of hip fracture in both men and women exposed to artificial fluoridation at 1 ppm, suggesting that low levels of fluoride may increase the risk of hip fracture in the elderly.
Exposure to natural fluoride in well water and hip fracture: a cohort analysis in Finland
In the retrospective cohort study based on record linkage, the authors studied a cohort of persons born in 1900-1930 (n = 144,627), who had lived in the same rural location at least from 1967 to 1980. Estimates for fluoride concentrations (median, 0.1 mg/liter; maximum, 2.4 mg/liter) in well water in
A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with differential fluoride exposure
In 1983/1984, a study of bone mass and fractures was begun in 827 women aged 20-80 years in three rural Iowa communities selected for the fluoride and calcium content of their community water supplies. The control community's water had a calcium content of 67 mg/liter and a fluoride content of
The effects of fluoridation on degenerative joint disease (DJD) and hip fractures
Fluoride strengthens bone, yet makes it more susceptible to fracture. If mechanical factors are important in DJD, an increased risk for DJD in communities where fluoride is consumed is also expected. Hip fractures and knee DJD joint replacements among those >65 years for 1991-1996 were compared between one community with
Bone resorption and quantitative ultrasound in an endemic fluorosis area of Turkey.
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the quantity and quality of bone by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements and to assess bone resorption by urinary excretion measurement of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in an adult Turkish population living in an endemic fluorosis area and consuming
Skeletal fluorosis in humans: a review of recent progress in the understanding of the disease
Endemic skeletal fluorosis is a chronic metabolic bone and joint disease caused by ingesting large amounts of fluoride either through water or rarely from foods of endemic areas. Fluoride is a cumulative toxin which can alter accretion and resorption of bone tissue. It also affects the homeostasis of bone mineral
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Mayo Clinic: Fluoridation & Bone Disease in Renal Patients
The available evidence suggests that some patients wtih long-term renal failure are being affected by drinking water with as little as 2 ppm fluoride. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers and if fluoride is indeed the cause. It would seem prudent, therefore, to monitor the fluoride intake of patients with renal failure living in high fluoride areas.
Unheeded Warnings: Government Health Authorities Ignore Fluoride Risk for Kidney Patients
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Fluoride Reduces Bone Strength Prior to Onset of Skeletal Fluorosis
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In Vitro Studies on Fluoride & Bone Strength
The "in vitro" research on fluoride and bone strength confirms what has repeatedly been found in animal and human studies: the more fluoride a bone has, the weaker the bone becomes. In an in vitro bone study, the researcher directly exposes a human or animal bone to a fluoride solution
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