OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of water fluoridated to 1 ppm on the incidence of hip fractures in the elderly.
DESIGN: Ecological cohort.
SETTING: The incidence of femoral neck fractures in patients 65 years of age or older was compared in three communities in Utah, one with and two without water fluoridated to 1 ppm.
PATIENTS: All patients with hip fractures who were 65 years of age and older over a 7-year period in the three communities, excluding (1) those with revisions of hip fractures, (2) those in whom the hip fracture was anything but a first diagnosis, (3) those in whom metastatic disease was present, or (4) those in whom the fracture was a second fracture (n = 246).
OUTCOME MEASURE: Rate of hospital discharge for hip fracture.
RESULTS: The relative risk for hip fracture for women in the fluoridated area was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 1.46) and for men was 1.41 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.81) relative to the nonfluoridated areas.
CONCLUSIONS: We found a small but significant increase in the risk of hip fracture in both men and women exposed to artificial fluoridation at 1 ppm, suggesting that low levels of fluoride may increase the risk of hip fracture in the elderly.
The effects of fluoridation on degenerative joint disease (DJD) and hip fractures
Fluoride strengthens bone, yet makes it more susceptible to fracture. If mechanical factors are important in DJD, an increased risk for DJD in communities where fluoride is consumed is also expected. Hip fractures and knee DJD joint replacements among those >65 years for 1991-1996 were compared between one community with
A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with differential fluoride exposure
In 1983/1984, a study of bone mass and fractures was begun in 827 women aged 20-80 years in three rural Iowa communities selected for the fluoride and calcium content of their community water supplies. The control community's water had a calcium content of 67 mg/liter and a fluoride content of
Denser but Not Stronger? Fluoride-Induced Bone Growth and Increased Risk of Hip Fractures.
Abstract Since the mid-1940s, fluoride has been added to toothpaste and (in some countries) tap water, table salt, or milk to reduce dental cavities.1 Although low-level fluoride supplementation prevents cavities, higher levels cause white mottling of the teeth.2 What is more, some studies suggest fluoride in drinking water may increase the
Bone resorption and quantitative ultrasound in an endemic fluorosis area of Turkey.
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the quantity and quality of bone by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements and to assess bone resorption by urinary excretion measurement of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in an adult Turkish population living in an endemic fluorosis area and consuming
Environmental Fluoride 1977 by Rose & Marier
The Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality was established by the National Research Council of Canada in response to a mandate provided by the Federal Government to develop scientific guidelines for defining the quality of the environment. The concern of the NRC Associate Committee is strictly with scientific
Related Studies :
Skeletal Fluorosis & Individual Variability
One of the common fallacies in the research on skeletal fluorosis is the notion that there is a uniform level of fluoride that is safe for everyone in the population. These "safety thresholds" have been expressed in terms of (a) bone fluoride content, (b) daily dose, (c) water fluoride level, (d) urinary fluoride level, and (e) blood fluoride level. The central fallacy with each of these alleged safety thresholds, however, is that they ignore the wide range of individual susceptibility in how people respond to toxic substances, including fluoride.
Dental Fluorosis & Enamel Hypoplasia in Children with Kidney Disease
Children with kidney disease are known to have high levels of fluoride in their blood and to be at risk for disfiguring tooth defects. Research suggests that high levels of fluoride in blood, which can cause the tooth defect known as dental fluorosis, can contribute to the defects that occur
Fluoridation of drinking water and chronic kidney disease: Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence
A fairly substantial body of research indicates that patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. Patients with reduced glomerular filtration rates have a decreased ability to excrete fluoride in the urine. These patients may develop skeletal fluorosis even at 1 ppm fluoride in the drinking water.
Clinical Trials: Fluoride Treatment & Bone Fracture in Osteoporosis Patients
Due to its ability to increase bone mass, fluoride has been used as an experimental treatment for osteoporosis. The results, however, have generally been disastrous. Rather than prevent bone fractures in osteoporosis patients, fluoride therapy (at doses of 20-34 mg/day) was repeatedly found to increase fracture rates. One of the most
The Relationship Between Fluoride, Bone Density, and Bone Strength
Although fluoride has generally been found to reduce the bone density of cortical bone, it is well documented that fluoride can increase the density of trabecular bone (aka cancellous bone). Trabecular bone is the primary bone of the spine, whereas cortical bone is the primary bone of the legs and arms. While increases in
Related FAN Content :