The effect of duration of chronic treatment with fluoride (F, 50 mg/L as NaF) on the lipid profile, lipid droplets and triglycerides (TG) in liver was evaluated in mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) previously induced by hyperlipidic diet and in animals fed normocaloric diet. In addition, the effect of F administered for a short period (20 days) was evaluated on de novo lipogenesis, by nuclear magnetic resonance. GRP78, Apo-E, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) were quantified by Western blotting. Our data indicate that F interferes in lipid metabolism and lipid droplets, having a different action depending on the exposure time and type of diet administered. F improved lipid parameters and reduced steatosis only when administered for a short period of time (up to 20 days) to animals fed normocaloric diet. However, when NAFLD was already installed, lipid parameters were only slightly improved at 20 days of treatment, but no effect was observed on the degree of steatosis. In addition, lipid profile was in general impaired when the animals were treated with F for 30 days, regardless of the diet. Moreover, F did not alter de novo lipogenesis in animals with installed NAFLD. Furthermore, hyperlipidic diet increased F accumulation in the body. GRP78 increased, while Apo-E and SREBP decreased in the F-treated groups. Our results provide new insights on how F affects lipid metabolism depending on the available energy source.