- High fluoride content in drinking water could affect the intellectual development of children.
- High water fluoride exposure is significantly associated with a reduced level of intelligence.
- Water quality and water fluoride exposure should be improved in areas with high water fluoride content.
Higher fluoride concentrations in water have inconsistently been associated with the levels of intelligence in children. The following study summarizes the available evidence regarding the strength of association between fluoridated water and children’s intelligence.
PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically analyzed from November 2016. Observational studies that have reported on intelligence levels in relation to high and low water fluoride contents, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were included. Further, the results were pooled using inverse variance methods. The correlation between water fluoride concentration and intelligence level was assessed by a dose–response meta-analysis.
Twenty-six studies reporting data on 7258 children were included. The summary results indicated that high water fluoride exposure was associated with lower intelligence levels (standardized mean difference : ?0.52; 95% CI: ?0.62 to ?0.42; P < 0.001). The findings from subgroup analyses were consistent with those from overall analysis. The dose–response meta-analysis suggested a significant association between water fluoride dosage and intelligence (P < 0.001), while increased water fluoride exposure was associated with reduced intelligence levels.
Greater exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was significantly associated with reduced levels of intelligence in children. Therefore, water quality and exposure to fluoride in water should be controlled in areas with high fluoride levels in water.
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0033350617302950?via%3Dihub
Effect of high-fluoride water supply on children’s intelligence.
In Shanxi Province, China, children living in the endemic fluoride village of Sima (water supply F = 4.12 mg/L) located near Xiaoyi City had average IQ (97.69) significantly lower (p < 0.02) than children living to the north in the nonendemic village of Xinghua (F = 0.91 mg/L; average IQ = 105.21). These differences were not
Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration as a reflection of fluoride exposure and its impact on IQ level and BMI of children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India
There has been growing public concern about intellectual performance of children at high levels of fluoride exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Simlapal Block of Bankura District, West Bengal, to find out the relationship between fluoride (F) exposure as exposure dose (ED) with dental fluorosis (DF), urinary fluoride concentration
Study on the correlation between daily total fluoride intake and children’s intelligence quotient.
Objective: To explore the exact relationship between daily total intake of fluoride and children's intelligence quotient (IQ). Methods: Wamiao village (severely endemic fluorosis area, drinking water fluoirde was 0.57-4.50 mgL) and Hinhuai village (non-endemic fluorosis area, drinking water fluoride was 0.18-0.76 mgL-1) in Shong County, Jiangsu Province, were selected for this
Effect of high-fluoride water on intelligence in children.
The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was measured in 118 children, aged 10-12 years, who were life-long residents in two villages of similar population size and social, educational and economic background but differing in the level of fluoride in drinking water. The children in the high-fluoride area (drinking water fluoride 3.15 ±
The relationships between low levels of urine fluoride on children’s intelligence, dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, China.
There has been public concern about children's intellectual performance at high levels of fluoride exposure, but few studies provide data directly to the question of whether low fluoride exposure levels less than 3.0 mg/L in drinking water adversely associated with children's intelligence. In this survey, we investigated the effects of
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