Fluoride Action Network


Fluoride is ubiquitously present throughout the world. It is released from minerals, magmatic gas, and industrial processing, and travels in the atmosphere and water. Exposure to low concentrations of fluoride increases overall oral health. Consequently, many countries add fluoride to their public water supply at 0.7–1.5 ppm. Exposure to high concentrations of fluoride, such as in a laboratory setting often exceeding 100 ppm, results in a wide array of toxicity phenotypes. This includes oxidative stress, organelle damage, and apoptosis in single cells, and skeletal and soft tissue damage in multicellular organisms. The mechanism of fluoride toxicity can be broadly attributed to four mechanisms: inhibition of proteins, organelle disruption, altered pH, and electrolyte imbalance. Recently, there has been renewed concern in the public sector as to whether fluoride is safe at the current exposure levels. In this review, we will focus on the impact of fluoride at the chemical, cellular, and multisystem level, as well as how organisms defend against fluoride. We also address public concerns about fluoride toxicity, including whether fluoride has a significant effect on neurodegeneration, diabetes, and the endocrine system.

*Abstract and references online at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00204-020-02687-5


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