- Plants tend to accumulate fluoride mostly in the root system
- Accumulation of F in plant tissues is dose-dependent with some exceptions
- F contamination of food crops can represents an actual health hazard in polluted areas
- F can alter chlorophyll levels, plant physiology and can induce oxidative stress
- Evidences of F affecting crop yields are often contradictory even at high F levels
Although a strong connection between the environmental fluoride contamination and the fluorosis disease is nowadays worldwide well documented, the knowledge on the fluoride contamination levels of cultivated crops at the basis of the human food-chain is limited and fragmented. Adopting a systematic approach, this study reviews the available literature concerning the impacts of soil and water fluoride pollution on the safety and productivity of food and feed crops at a global scale, with the aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art. The analyses of literature highlighted that food and feed crops exposed to soil and water fluoride pollution may reach concentrations of fluoride potentially harmful to human health. Nevertheless, despite the efforts already made to assess the crop fluoride accumulation in contaminated areas of India and China, the present study brings to light the lack of knowledge still existing on this issue for some regions strongly affected by environmental fluoride contamination such as the East African Rift Valley. Concerning the impacts of fluoride on cultivated crops, many authors observed that fluoride can produce toxic effects on plants leading to oxidative stress, reduction in chlorophyll content, alterations in the levels of proline, betaine, soluble sugars, nitrogen and macro and micronutrients. However, the appearance of symptoms such as visible injuries, reduced root and shoot length and yield decline was not always observed, also at high levels of fluoride exposure, and in some cases, the biomass production was even stimulated by increasing fluoride doses.
Pollution, Yield reduction, Oxidative stress, Risk assessment, Hazard index, Fluorosis
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048969721027212
Health risk in children to fluoride exposure in a typical endemic fluorosis area on Loess Plateau, north China, in the last decade
Highlights Fluoride concentrations were 0.55 mg L-1 in 3427 water consumption points in Shanxi Province. Health risks were assessed for children consumers regarding fluoride exposure. Approximately 10%, 1.3% and 0.06% children are at risk for dental decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. The fluoride concentrations were being decreased significantly from
Downregulation of miR-4755-5p promotes fluoride-induced osteoblast activation via tageting Cyclin D1.
Background Endemic fluorosis remains a major public health issue in many countries. Fluoride can cause abnormalities in osteoblast proliferation and activation, leading to skeletal fluorosis. However, its detailed molecular mechanism remains unclear. Based on a previous study, the aim of this study is to explore the role of miRNA in osteoblast
A national cross-sectional study on effects of fluoride-safe water supply on the prevalence of fluorosis in China
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. DESIGN: A national cross-sectional study in China. SETTING: In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. PARTICIPANTS: Involved 81 786 children aged from
Occurrence of fluorosis in endemic forms in Hyderabad state.
FIRST PAGE OF PAPER All animal tissues and plants contain fluorine in very small amounts. It is found in soils, rocks and water. No convincing evidence has been as yet produced to show that it performs any useful function in animal nutrition, or that it is essential for animal metabolism. During the
Clinical symptoms of dental and skeletal fluorosis in Gadag and Bagalkot Districts of Karnataka.
An investigation was undertaken in six endemic villages of Mundargi taluk of Gadag district and two of Hungund taluk of Bagalkot district to assess the clinical symptoms of both dental and skeletal fluorosis and in turn to find out the severity of the disease. A check list developed with the help of
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As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Dental Fluorosis in the U.S. 1950-2004
Before the widespread use of fluoride in dentistry, dental fluorosis was rarely found in western countries. Today, with virtually every toothpaste now containing fluoride, and most U.S. water supplies containing fluoride chemicals, dental fluorosis rates have reached unprecedented levels. In the 1950s, it was estimated that only 10% of children in
Nutrient Deficiencies Enhance Fluoride Toxicity
It has been known since the 1930s that poor nutrition enhances the toxicity of fluoride. As discussed below, nutrient deficiencies have been specifically linked to increased susceptibility to fluoride-induced tooth damage (dental fluorosis), bone damage (osteomalacia), neurotoxicity (reduced intelligence), and mutagenicity. The nutrients of primary importance appear to be calcium,
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