- Plants tend to accumulate fluoride mostly in the root system
- Accumulation of F in plant tissues is dose-dependent with some exceptions
- F contamination of food crops can represents an actual health hazard in polluted areas
- F can alter chlorophyll levels, plant physiology and can induce oxidative stress
- Evidences of F affecting crop yields are often contradictory even at high F levels
Although a strong connection between the environmental fluoride contamination and the fluorosis disease is nowadays worldwide well documented, the knowledge on the fluoride contamination levels of cultivated crops at the basis of the human food-chain is limited and fragmented. Adopting a systematic approach, this study reviews the available literature concerning the impacts of soil and water fluoride pollution on the safety and productivity of food and feed crops at a global scale, with the aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art. The analyses of literature highlighted that food and feed crops exposed to soil and water fluoride pollution may reach concentrations of fluoride potentially harmful to human health. Nevertheless, despite the efforts already made to assess the crop fluoride accumulation in contaminated areas of India and China, the present study brings to light the lack of knowledge still existing on this issue for some regions strongly affected by environmental fluoride contamination such as the East African Rift Valley. Concerning the impacts of fluoride on cultivated crops, many authors observed that fluoride can produce toxic effects on plants leading to oxidative stress, reduction in chlorophyll content, alterations in the levels of proline, betaine, soluble sugars, nitrogen and macro and micronutrients. However, the appearance of symptoms such as visible injuries, reduced root and shoot length and yield decline was not always observed, also at high levels of fluoride exposure, and in some cases, the biomass production was even stimulated by increasing fluoride doses.
Pollution, Yield reduction, Oxidative stress, Risk assessment, Hazard index, Fluorosis
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048969721027212
Systematic impacts of fluoride exposure on the metabolomics of rats.
Highlights The risk of chronic endemic fluorosis exists in many countries and regions. Comprehensive metabolomic analysis was used to study the effects of fluoride. Multivariate statistics were used to detect metabolite profile changes. Fluoride exposure caused amino acid, fatty acid, and energy metabolism disorders. Fluoride exposure caused oxidative stress,
Biphasic Functions of Sodium Fluoride (NaF) in Soft and in Hard Periodontal Tissues.
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is widely used in clinical dentistry. However, the administration of high or low concentrations of NaF has various functions in different tissues. Understanding the mechanisms of the different effects of NaF will help to optimize its use in clinical applications. Studies of NaF and epithelial cells, osteoblasts,
Downregulation of miR-4755-5p promotes fluoride-induced osteoblast activation via tageting Cyclin D1.
Background Endemic fluorosis remains a major public health issue in many countries. Fluoride can cause abnormalities in osteoblast proliferation and activation, leading to skeletal fluorosis. However, its detailed molecular mechanism remains unclear. Based on a previous study, the aim of this study is to explore the role of miRNA in osteoblast
Neuro-medical manifestations of fluorosis in populations living in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley.
Prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of fluoride (> 1.5 mg/L) is associated with dental and skeletal fluorosis. The effects of fluoride on dental and skeletal system have been studied extensively; however, the neurological consequences of fluoride in population-based studies are limited. The study aims to assess the epidemiology of neurological
Epidemiological, clinical, and biochemical study of endemic dental and skeletal fluorosis in Punjab
The incidence of dental fluorosis in 46,000 children in the Punjab was assessed and compared with the fluoride content of their water supplies. Ten villages were selected for more detailed studies of skeletal as well as dental fluorosis. Factors other than the fluoride content of the drinking water which were found to influence
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Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Community Fluorosis Index (CFI)
The current Community Fluorosis Index for U.S. adolescents as a whole (from both fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas) is roughly 5 times higher than the CFI health authorities predicted for fluoridated areas when fluoridation first began. It is also higher than the CFI that the NIDR found in fluoridated areas back in the 1980s. It is readily apparent, therefore, that children are ingesting far more fluoride than was the case in the 1950s, and even as recently as the 1980s.
A highly significant relationship of exposure to fluoride was established with the frequency of back and neck surgery, fractures, symptoms of musculoskeletal disease and past history of diseases of bones and joints in the absence of the typical findings of skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring exposed workers for the early manifestations of "musculoskeletal fluorosis" is recommended prior to the development of destructive and degenerative changes of the skeleton.
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