- Plants tend to accumulate fluoride mostly in the root system
- Accumulation of F in plant tissues is dose-dependent with some exceptions
- F contamination of food crops can represents an actual health hazard in polluted areas
- F can alter chlorophyll levels, plant physiology and can induce oxidative stress
- Evidences of F affecting crop yields are often contradictory even at high F levels
Although a strong connection between the environmental fluoride contamination and the fluorosis disease is nowadays worldwide well documented, the knowledge on the fluoride contamination levels of cultivated crops at the basis of the human food-chain is limited and fragmented. Adopting a systematic approach, this study reviews the available literature concerning the impacts of soil and water fluoride pollution on the safety and productivity of food and feed crops at a global scale, with the aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art. The analyses of literature highlighted that food and feed crops exposed to soil and water fluoride pollution may reach concentrations of fluoride potentially harmful to human health. Nevertheless, despite the efforts already made to assess the crop fluoride accumulation in contaminated areas of India and China, the present study brings to light the lack of knowledge still existing on this issue for some regions strongly affected by environmental fluoride contamination such as the East African Rift Valley. Concerning the impacts of fluoride on cultivated crops, many authors observed that fluoride can produce toxic effects on plants leading to oxidative stress, reduction in chlorophyll content, alterations in the levels of proline, betaine, soluble sugars, nitrogen and macro and micronutrients. However, the appearance of symptoms such as visible injuries, reduced root and shoot length and yield decline was not always observed, also at high levels of fluoride exposure, and in some cases, the biomass production was even stimulated by increasing fluoride doses.
Pollution, Yield reduction, Oxidative stress, Risk assessment, Hazard index, Fluorosis
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048969721027212
Systematic impacts of fluoride exposure on the metabolomics of rats.
Highlights The risk of chronic endemic fluorosis exists in many countries and regions. Comprehensive metabolomic analysis was used to study the effects of fluoride. Multivariate statistics were used to detect metabolite profile changes. Fluoride exposure caused amino acid, fatty acid, and energy metabolism disorders. Fluoride exposure caused oxidative stress,
High levels of fluoride in groundwater from Northern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains reveals detrimental fluorosis health risks.
Highlights This study provides an overview of fluoride distribution and health risks in the fluoride endemic region of Northern Indo-Gangetic Plain. Groundwater fluorides concentration exceeded the safe drinking water limit in 98% of sampling locations. Health hazard index (HQFluoride) exceeded the unitary value in all the individual groups signifying that
Fluorosis in horses drinking artifically fluoridated water
Quarter Horses drinking water artificially fluoridated at 0.9 to 1.1 ppm over long periods of time developed dental fluorosis. Even when the horses had not been exposed to artificially fluoridated water (AFW) during formation of enamel, brown discoloration occurred and progressed. Pronounced loss of tooth-supporting alveolar bone with recession of
Fluoride Sources, Toxicity and Fluorosis Management Techniques - A Brief Review.
Highlights Overexposure to fluoride via drinking water causes several health effects including fluorosis Endemic fluorosis is still persisted in several countries even with advancement in research Most of fluorosis management techniques suggested in the past have come with their own drawbacks Defluoridation techniques based on aluminium materials pose serious
Incidence of fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration are not always positively correlated with drinking water fluoride level.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fluoride on human health, focusing on the incidence of fluorosis, urinary fluoride concentration and fluoride level in drinking water in three fluoride-affected villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. In one village urinary fluoride concentration was very high along
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Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Diagnostic Criteria for Dental Fluorosis: The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) Index
The traditional criteria (the "Dean Index") for diagnosing dental fluorosis was developed in the first half of the 20th century by H. Trendley Dean. While the Dean Index is still widely used in surveys of fluorosis -- including the CDC's national surveys of fluorosis in the United States -- dental
Fluoride Magnifies Impact of Repetitive Stress on Joints
Research has repeatedly found that fluoride's effect on the skeleton is most pronounced in the bones and joints that undergo the greatest strain. Indeed, both the symptoms of fluorosis (i.e., joint pain and stiffness) as well as the radiological findings (e.g., exostoses, interosseuous membrane calcification) have been found to occur earliest, and most severely, in the joints
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