- Almost 200 million people all over the world are facing dreadful effects of fluoride.
- Mice were treated orally with environmentally relevant concentration of fluoride for 8 months.
- Fluoride treatment resulted into histopathology, oxidative stress response and transcriptional alterations of Ogg1 and Rad51.
- DNA fragmentations and apoptosis induction was observed in liver and brain.
- Fluoride induced down-regulation of Rad51 due to promoter hypermethylation is first time reported in this study.
Chronic exposure to fluoride (F) beyond the permissible limit (1.5 ppm) is known to cause detrimental health effects by induction of oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage overpowering the DNA repair machinery. In the present study, we assessed F induced oxidative stress through monitoring biochemical parameters and looked into the effect of chronic F exposure on two crucial DNA repair genes Ogg1 and Rad51 having important role against ROS induced DNA damages. To address this issue, we exposed Swiss albino mice to an environmentally relevant concentration of fluoride (15 ppm NaF) for 8 months. Results revealed histoarchitectural damages in liver, brain, kidney and spleen. Depletion of GSH, increase in lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in liver and brain confirmed the generation of oxidative stress. qRT-PCR result showed that expressions of Ogg1 and Rad51 were altered after F exposure in the affected organs. Promoter hypermethylation was associated with the downregulation of Rad51. F-induced DNA damage and the compromised DNA repair machinery triggered intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in liver and brain. The present study indicates the possible association of epigenetic regulation with F induced neurotoxicity.
Protective effects of vitamin C against fluoride toxicity.
Fluorine is a highly toxic substance that is widely distributed with drinking water and nutrients. While fluorine is not free in nature, it can form compounds with almost all metals and nonmetals except oxygen and inert gases. Fluorine is found in the environment in water, soil, air, nutrients, and vegetation
Evaluation of caspase-dependent apoptosis during fluoride-induced liver lesion in pigs
Sixteen barrows (Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire) were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting eight pigs. The groups received the same basal diet supplemented with 0 and 400 mg/kg fluoride, respectively. Histological examinations, including in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), Haematoxylin and Eosin staining (HE)
DNA damage, apoptosis and cell cycle changes induced by fluoride in rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes
AIM: To study the effect of fluoride on oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as cell cycle of rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes. METHODS: Ten male SD rats weighing 80-120 g were randomly divided into control group and fluoride group, 5 animals each group. The animals in
Exocyclic DNA adducts in sheep with skeletal fluorosis resident in the proximity to the Portoscuso-Portovesme industrial estate on Sardinia Island, Italy
The mechanisms by which fluoride produces its toxic effects are still not clear. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the fluoride-induced toxicity on randomly selected sheep with skeletal fluorosis resident near the large non-ferrous metallurgy Portoscuso-Portovesme industrial estate and the Carbonia and Gonnessa towns (control district) in respect
Effects of fluoride on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis in human embryo hepatocytes
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of fluoride on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis in human embryo hepatocyte L-02 cells. METHODS: Lipid peroxide (LPO) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle analysis were measured after in vitro cultured L-02 cells were exposed to sodium fluoride at different
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Fluoride & Oxidative Stress
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Nutrient Deficiencies Enhance Fluoride Toxicity
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Fluoride Affects Learning & Memory in Animals
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NRC (2006): Fluoride's Neurotoxicity and Neurobehavioral Effects
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Fluoride's Direct Effects on Brain: Animal Studies
The possibility that fluoride ingestion may impair intelligence and other indices of neurological function is supported by a vast body of animal research, including over 40 studies that have investigated fluoride's effects on brain quality in animals. As discussed by the National Research Council, the studies have consistently demonstrated that fluoride, at widely varying concentrations, is toxic to the brain.
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