Fluoride Action Network



  • Hesperidin prevented NaF-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.
  • Hesperidin attenuated NaF-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.
  • Hesperidin reduced NaF-induced apoptosis and autophagy.


High dose of fluoride intake is associated with toxic effects on liver and kidney tissues. One approach to tackle these toxicities is using natural antioxidants as supplements. This study evaluated the ameliorative effects of hesperidin (HSP) against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in wistar albino rats.

Materials and methods

In the present study, the rats were randomly allocated into five groups of seven male rats each group: control, NaF (600 ppm), HSP-200, NaF + HSP-100 and NaF + HSP 200.

Key findings

Hepatic and renal injuries induced by NaF were confirmed by the alteration in kidney function parameters in the serum (urea and creatinine), levels of liver enzymes (ALT, ALP and AST), activities of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) and levels of inflammatory markers (NF-?B, IL-1? and TNF-?). NaF also inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, increased levels of autophagic markers (Beclin-1, LC3A and LC3B) and expression levels of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, p53 and procaspase-3) in the liver and kidney tissues. Administration of HSP concurrently with NaF significantly ameliorated the deviation in the above-studied parameters.


The results of the current study revealed that HSP could be used as a beneficial adjuvant that confers protection against NaF-induced liver and kidney damage through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic mechanisms.

*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320521007165