Note from Fluoride Action Network:
This is a duplicate study of Lu et al. (2000).
Sixty children, aged 10 to 12, were randomly selected for IQ testing from
an area with high fluoride (3.15 mg F/L) in the drinking water along with 58 control
children of the same age from a nearby low fluoride (0.37 mg F/L) area. The two areas
are located approximately 5 km apart in the Tianjin Xiqing District, and both have
similar normal iodine levels, living standards, access to medical facilities, economic
development, educational level, etc. A single individual using the C2 version of the
Chinese Raven Test did the IQ testing. The mean IQ scores were significantly
different: 92.27±20.45 in the high F area and 103.05±13.86 in the low F area (P<0.01).
Within the seven categories of the scores, there were significantly more borderline
and low IQs in the high F area (13/60) than in the low F area (2/58) (p<0.01).]
The effects of comprehensive control measures on intelligence of school-age children in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas.
Objective To investigate the incidence of dental fluorosis,urinary fluoride level and intelligence of children who lived in the coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas and to reveal the effects of comprehensive control measures on intelligence of children in this area. Methods Children aged 8-12 who lived in coal-burning-borne endemic fluorosis areas in Bijie
Decreased intelligence in children and exposure to fluoride and arsenic in drinking water.
Recent evidence suggests that fluoride (F) and arsenic (As) may adversely affect intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. We explore the association between exposure to F and As in drinking water and intelligence in children. Three rural communities in Mexico with contrasting levels of F and As in drinking water were studied:
The effect of the fluoride ion on reproductive parameters and an estimate of the safe daily dose of fluoride to prevent female infertility and miscarriage, and foetal neurotoxicity.
A paper in the current issue by Yousefi et al. examined data on the prevalence of fertility, infertility, and abortion (miscarriage), in the health records of 3,392 women, aged 10–49 yr, living in two regions of Poldasht county, Iran, with low and high drinking water fluoride ion (F) levels (means
[Investigation of children’s intelligence quotient and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area in Pucheng county Shaanxi province before and after drinking water change].
Objective: To further understand the effect of anti—fluoride water on intellectual development of children and dental fluorosis in drinking water-type of endemic fluorosis area Pucheng county Shaanxi province. Methods: Two hundred 8 to 12 years old children were randomly selected in endemic fluorosis area with changed water or unchanged water, in
Effect of fluoride in drinking water on children's intelligence in high and low fluoride areas of Delhi
Introduction: Fluoride is one of the indispensable elements for the living being. However, the intake of F above the threshold level can affect the central nervous system even before causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. Aim: The aim was to assess the effect of fluoride in drinking water on the intelligence quotient
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Fluoride & IQ: The 64 Studies
As of December 2019, a total of 72 studies have investigated the relationship between fluoride and human intelligence. Of these investigations, 64 studies have found that elevated fluoride exposure is associated with reduced IQ in humans, while over 60 animal studies have found that fluoride exposure impairs the learning and/or
Fluoride Affects Learning & Memory in Animals
An association between elevated fluoride exposure and reduced intelligence has now been observed in 64 IQ studies. Although a link between fluoride and intelligence might initially seem surprising or random, it is actually consistent with a large body of animal research. This animal research includes the following 45 studies (out
Fluoride's Direct Effects on Brain: Animal Studies
The possibility that fluoride ingestion may impair intelligence and other indices of neurological function is supported by a vast body of animal research, including over 40 studies that have investigated fluoride's effects on brain quality in animals. As discussed by the National Research Council, the studies have consistently demonstrated that fluoride, at widely varying concentrations, is toxic to the brain.
NRC (2006): Fluoride's Neurotoxicity and Neurobehavioral Effects
The NRC's analysis on fluoride and the brain.
Fluoride's Neurobehavioral Effects in Humans & Animals
In addition to studies linking fluoride to reduced IQ in humans, and impaired learning/memory in animals, human and animal studies have also linked fluoride to a variety of other neurobehavioral effects. These studies, which are excerpted below, provide yet further evidence that fluoride is a neurotoxin. The latest findings were reported
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