We explored age-specific and gender-specific effects of fluoride level in drinking water and the incidence of osteosarcoma.
We used data from a matched case-control study conducted through 11 hospitals in the United States that included a complete residential history for each patient and type of drinking water (public, private well, bottled) used at each address. Our analysis was limited to cases less than 20 years old. We standardized fluoride exposure estimates based on CDC-recommended target levels that take climate into account. We categorized exposure into three groups (<30%, 30-99%, >99% of target) and used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios.
Analysis is based on 103 cases under the age of 20 and 215 matched controls. For males, the unadjusted odds ratios for higher exposures were greater than 1.0 at each exposure age, reaching a peak of 4.07 (95% CI 1.43, 11.56) at age 7 years for the highest exposure. Adjusting for potential confounders produced similar results with an adjusted odds ratio for males of 5.46 (95% CI 1.50, 19.90) at age 7 years. This association was not apparent among females.
Our exploratory analysis found an association between fluoride exposure in drinking water during childhood and the incidence of osteosarcoma among males but not consistently among females. Further research is required to confirm or refute this observation.
A brief report on the association of drinking water fluoridation and the incidence of osteosarcoma among young males
Executive Summary It is well known that fluoride provides important public health benefits by effectively preventing dental caries in children. The Public Health Service (1991) endorses artificial fluoridation of drinking water at a concentration of 0.7-1.2 milligrams of fluoride per liter of water (or parts per million) as the optimally beneficial
Drinking water fluoridation and osteosarcoma incidence on the island of Ireland
The incidence of osteosarcoma in Northern Ireland was compared with that in the Republic of Ireland to establish if differences in incidence between the two regions could be related to their different drinking water fluoridation policies. Data from the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry (NICR) and the National Cancer Registry of
USA: More About Fluoride.
This excerpt was provided free by Science Direct; the full article requires payment. ... The supporting cancer hazard evidence was an animal study sponsored by the government’s National Toxicology Program (Lancet, Feb 3, p 282). Since then, the Public Health Service has responded to this and similar news stories by reaffirming
Osteosarcoma, seasonality, and environmental factors in Wisconsin, 1979-1989
Proxy exposure measures and readily available data from the Wisconsin Cancer Reporting System were used to contrast 167 osteosarcoma cases with 989 frequency-matched cancer referents reported during 1979-1989. Differences in potential exposure to water-borne radiation and fluoridated drinking water, population size for the listed place of residence, and seasonality were
Is fluoride a risk factor for bone cancer? Small area analysis of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma diagnosed among 0-49-year-olds in Great Britain, 1980-2005.
BACKGROUND: Artificial fluoridation of drinking water to improve dental health has long been a topic of controversy. Opponents of this public health measure have cited the possibility of bone cancer induction. The study objective was to examine whether increased risk of primary bone cancer was associated with living in areas
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Fluoride & Osteosarcoma: A Timeline
Several human epidemiological studies have found an association between fluoride in drinking water and the occurrence of osteosarcoma (bone cancer) in young males. These studies are consistent with the National Toxicology Program's (NTP) cancer bioassay which found that fluoride-treated male rats had an dose-dependent increase in osteosarcoma. Although a number of studies have failed to detect an association between fluoride and osteosarcoma, none of these studies have measured the risk of fluoride at specific windows in time, which based on recent results, is the critical question with respect to fluoride and osteosarcoma.
Fluoride's Mutagenicity: In vitro Studies
According to the National Toxicology Program, "the preponderance of evidence" from laboratory "in vitro" studies indicate that fluoride is a mutagenic compound. Many substances which are mutagens, are also carcinogens (i.e. they can cause cancer). As is typical for in vitro studies, the concentrations of fluoride that have generally been tested
NTP Bioassay on Fluoride/Cancer (1990)
In 1977, the U.S. Congress requested that animal studies be conducted to determine if fluoride can cause cancer. The result of the Congressional request was an extensive animal study conducted in the 1980s by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and published in 1990. The main finding of NTP's study was a dose-dependent increase in osteosarcoma (bone cancer) among the fluoride-treated male rats.
Fluoride/Osteosarcoma Link Is Biologically Plausible
The "biological plausiblility" of a fluoride-osteosarcoma link is widely acknowledged in the scientific literature. The biological plausibility centers around three facts: 1) Bone is the principal site of fluoride accumulation, particularly during the growth spurts of childhood; 2) Fluoride is a mutagen when present at sufficient concentrations, and 3) Fluoride can stimulate the proliferation of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells).
A Critique of Gelberg's Study on Fluoride/Osteosarcoma in New York
The case-control study by Gelberg, published first as a PhD dissertation and then later in two peer-reviewed journals, may represent the most substantive study on fluoride/osteosarcoma previous to Bassin’s 2001 analysis. In assessing Gelberg’s data, we were at first struck by the existence of several notable errors in both the thesis and papers. While these errors do raise questions about the study, our primary concern with Gelberg’s work relates to the methods she used to analyze her data.
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