Fluoride Action Network


Fluorosed enamel is caused by exposure to fluoride during tooth formation. The objective of this study was to determine whether epithelial ameloblast-lineage cells, derived from the human enamel organ, are directly affected by micromolar concentrations of fluoride. Cells were cultured in the presence of fluoride, and proliferation was measured by BrdU incorporation. The effect of 0, 10, or 20 microM fluoride on apoptosis was determined by the flow cytometry apoptotic index. The effects of fluoride on gene expression were investigated by SuperArray microarray analysis and real-time PCR. Fluoride had a biphasic effect on cell proliferation, with enhanced proliferation at 16 microM, and reduced proliferation at greater than 1 mM F. Flow cytometry showed that both 10 microM and 20 microM NaF significantly increased the apoptotic index of ameloblast-lineage cells. There was no general effect of fluoride on gene expression. These results indicate multiple effects of micromolar fluoride on ameloblast-lineage cells.