Fluoride Action Network


Sixty-four CD-1 female mice were assigned to onez of four water treatment groups: Control (distilled, deionized water) (C); Fluoride (50 ppm F as NaF) (F); Aluminum (100 ppm Al as AlCl3) (Al); and Al & F (50 ppm F & 100 ppm Al) (AlF). One-half of the animals in each group were mated. The study was terminated on the 5th days after parturition. Pregnancy and lactation (P & L) reduced tibia Al more than 50% in the C, F, and Al groups, and 34% in the AlF group. In contrast, brain Al increased 168% in the F group, and 260% to 350% in the remaining three groups. P & L decreased tibia calcium (Ca) between 10% and 20% in all four groups, whereas the kidney Ca reduction ranged from 21% to 24%. However, heart Ca increased a minimum of 11% in the F group and a maximum of 169% in the AlF group. A maximum reduction of tibia zinc by pregnancy was obtained in the AlF group, reflecting the lowest fetal zinc in the group. The study demonstrated that pregnancy and lactation may increase the need of Al, Ca, and zinc in the vital organs such as brain,heart and fetus. These extra requirements may be fulfilled at the expense of the bones and less active organs such as kidneys. The study suggests that Al may be essential during pregnancy and lactation for increased cell proliferation.