Methods: Fluoride was measured in drinking water (DW) and in urine (1st and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy). The 369 mother-children pairs of the Spanish INMA cohort participating in the study reported their drinking water habits (Fluorinated DW, non-Fluorinated DW or bottled water (BW)). Maternal urine fluoride creatinine adjusted (MUFcr) levels at both trimesters were determined and neuropsychological assessment at 1 and 4 years of age was performed. For neuropsychological assessment the Bayley Scales (1 y) and the McCarthy Scales (4-5 years) were used. Multivariate linear regression models were built with the following neuropsychological domains as outcomes: Mental Index (Bayley) and Verbal, Perceptive-Manipulative, Numeric, Memory and General Cognitive (McCarthy)).
Results: The percentage of mothers drinking FDW, NFDW and BW was 23.9%, 35% and 39.8% respectively. Fluoride mean levels were 0.81, 0.1-0.25 and <0.1-0.48 mg/L in FDW, non-FDW and BW, consecutively. MUFcr mean levels of entire pregnancy (mg F/g creatinine) (mean; 95% CI) were different (p<0.001) for those drinking FDW ((0.91 (0.83, 0.99), NFDW (0.45 (0.41, 0.49)) and BW (0.64 (0.6, 0.69)). No association was detected between MUFcr levels and Mental Index (Bayley). An increase of 1 unit in MUFcr during the entire pregnancy was related to a higher score on the perceptual-manipulative (5.13 (0.52, 9.74)) and the general cognitive (4.8 (0.13, 9.47)) McCarthy scales., MUFcr levels at 32th week of pregnancy were associated with higher verbal, memory and general cognitive scores in boys (p for interaction <0.05).
Conclusions: Positive associations between fluoride levels during pregnancy and neuropsychological development at 4 years of age were found. Detrimental effects of fluoride in neurodevelopment were not supported by our data.
*Abstract in the Conference Abstract E-Posters at http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/isee2020.abstract-e-posters.pdf
J. Ibarluzea, Department of Health of the Basque Government, Subdirectorate of Public Health of Gipuzkoa, Donostia-San Sebastián, SPAIN
M. Gallastegi, Biodonostia Health Research Institute, Group of Environmental Epidemiology and Child Development., Donostia-San Sebastián, SPAIN
M. Lopez Espinosa, Nursing School, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, SPAIN
C. M. Villanueva, Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, SPAIN,
I. Riano, AGC -Pediatría. HUCA-Oviedo, Oviedo, SPAIN,
F. Ballester, Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Valencia, SPAIN,
L. Santa Marina, Department of Health of the Basque Government, Subdirectorate of Public Health of Gipuzkoa, Donostia-San Sebastián, SPAIN
A. Jiménez Zabala, Department of Health of the Basque Government, Subdirectorate of Public Health of Gipuzkoa, Donostia-San Sebastián, SPAIN
A. Molinuevo, Biodonostia Health Research Institute, Group of Environmental Epidemiology and Child Development., Donostia-San Sebastián, SPAIN,
J. Sunyer, ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona, SPAIN,
A. Tardon, IUOPA-Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, SPAIN.