Fluoride Action Network


Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 is widely used to treat patients with learning and memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease in China. However, it is not yet clear whether the analog of EGb761 (EGb) has a protective effect on the learning and memory damage induced by chronic fluorosis. In this study, 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, a sodium fluoride (NaF) + EGb group, and a NaF group. The rats were administered 0.5 ml water containing NaF (100 mg/l) and EGb (120 mg/kg) per day via gavage. After 3 months, the rats’ capacity for learning and memory was tested using a Y-maze. Damage to hippocampal neurons was evaluated by histological examination of the CA3 area. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. Furthermore, the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax and the levels of cleaved Caspase3 in the hippocampus were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that EGb could improve learning and memory abilities, enhance the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, attenuate the level of MDA, upregulate the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and downregulate the level of cleaved Caspase3.