Fluoride Action Network



Potential protection against the neurotoxic damages of high levels of fluoride on rats and SH-SY5Y cells by extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, as well as underlying mechanisms, were examined.


The rats were divided randomly into 4 groups, i.e., control, treatment with the extract (100 mg/kg body weight, gavage once daily), treatment with fluoride (50 ppm F in drinking water) and combined treatment with both; SH-SY5Y cells exposed to fluoride and fluoride in combination with the extract or 4-Amino-1,8-naphthalimide (4-ANI), an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Spatial learning and memory in the rats were assessed employing Morris water maze test; the contents of fluoride in brains and urine by fluoride ion-selective electrode; cytotoxicity of fluoride was by CCK-8 kit; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) by appropriate kits; the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was by ELISA; the content of ROS and frequency of apoptosis by flow cytometry; the expressions of phospho-histone H2A.X(Ser139), PARP-1, poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) by Western blotting or immunofluorescence.


The rats with prolong treatment of fluoride exhibited dental fluorosis, the increased contents of fluoride in brains and urine and the declined ability of learning and memory. In the hippocampus of the rats and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to fluoride, the levels of ROS, MDA, apoptosis, 8-OHdG and the protein expressions of histone H2A.X(Ser139), PARP-1 and PAR were all elevated; the activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the protein expression of SIRT1 reduced. Interestingly, the treatment of Ginkgo bilobaextract attenuated these neurotoxic effects on rats and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to fluoride and the treatment of 4-ANI produced a neuroprotective effect against fluoride exposure.


Ginkgo biloba extract attenuated neurotoxic damages induced by fluoride exposure to rats and SH-SY5Y cells and the underlying mechanism might involve the inhibition of PARP-1 and the promotion of SIRT1.

*Original full-text article online at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0946672X22001687