Fluoride Action Network


Co-existing as environmental pollutants in certain areas of China where lead (Pb) is mined, fluoride (F) and Pb pose serious risks to the human central nervous system (CNS). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) expression, which is involved in the process of learning and memory, has an important role in CNS functioning. Here, in order to verify whether F and/or Pb affect CaMKII expression, we determined the CaMKII expression level in the hippocampus of rats administered 150 mg sodium fluoride/L and/or 300 mg lead acetate/L in their drinking water for 30 days. Through quantitative positioning analysis by western blotting and immunofluorescence, respectively, CaMKII expression levels in the F, Pb, and F plus Pb groups were found to be significantly depressed compared with controls. Interestingly, the western blotting technique, but not the immunofluorescence results indicated greater depression in the Pb group than in either the F or the F+Pb group. Overall, these findings may be helpful to gain a better understanding of the mechanism underlying F and Pb combined neurotoxicity.