Fluoride Action Network

Fluoride Studies funded by the U.S. Government

The first U.S. government-funded Mother-Offspring study on fluoride's neurotoxic effects was published in 2017 - some 67 years since fluoridation of drinking water began. There are now more studies since 2017 that have revealed that in fluoridated communities the fetus and the formula-fed infant are the most vulnerable to fluoride’s neurotoxicity. These and other studies funded by the U.S. government on fluoride's toxicity are presented here.

Fluoride studies that received NIDCR funding

In 1998, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) was renamed the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)

The NIDCR is a staunchly pro-fluoridation federal agency. It is the major funding source for dental research in the US. It has funded many studies on fluoride, but only one human study on fluoride’s neurotoxicity, which was the Broadbent et al. 2015 New Zealand IQ study (see below). While there are currently 74 studies reporting an association between fluoride exposure and lowered IQ, the Broadbent study is one of 9 studies that found no correlation.

According to Philippe P. Hujoel, How a Nutritional Deficiency Became Treated with Fluoride, Nutrients, 2021:

“The ADA [American Dental Association] sponsored the bill to create the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR)… This institute would become credited with motivating 17 countries to fluoridate their water, for training hundreds of foreign dental scientists, and for funding research in 7 foreign countries. The New York Times described the first two NIDR directors as fluoride pioneers (there were 4 such recognized fluoride pioneers) [67,68]. These NIDR directors’ were ADA members and had a long prior history of research on fluorides and micro-organisms [69]. The term fluoride appears extensively in the index of a book on the 20th century history of NIDR…”

The NIDCR has a huge budget to fund hundreds of studies each year. For 2023 the proposed budget is $513.2 million.

The continuous funding to university researchers, and the journals they publish in, can influence strong partisanship to NIDCR’s positions, and in the case of fluoride, to their staunch promotion of fluoridation.

How to find who funds the studies on fluoride and fluoridation?

The following studies listed below are funded or co-funded by the NIDCR (and they are only a handful of what the NIDCR has funded). The easy way to find who funds the studies is by searching Europe PMC. You can quickly find the studies by searching: NIDCR fluoride or NIDCR and a researcher’s name.

A more direct route is the NIH Reporter. Take a look at the studies, and the grant amounts, the NIDCR gave to Gary Douglas Slade BDSC, DDPH, of the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill. Professor Slade is a major proponent of fluoridation. Note: BDSC = Bachelor of Dental Science; DDPH =Diploma in Dental Public Health.

Some of the fluoride studies funded by the NIDCR (we will add more as time allows)



(# of authors)




U. of Washington – 6

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital (Ohio) – 2

U. of California (Riverside) – 1

A conceptual model on caregivers’ hesitancy of topical fluoride for their children.

 U. of Texas (Huston) – 2

Rice U. – 1

Self-assembling peptides as immunomodulatory biomaterials.
Simancas-Pallares M, Gormley A, Shrestha P, Gu Y, Cho H,  Spangle H, Burk Z, Smith M, Dashper S,  Burgner D, Ferreira Zandona A, Ginnis J, Vann W, Esberg A, Roach J, Ribeiro A, Wu D,  Silva M,  Lif Holgerson P,  Haworth S, Johansson I, North K,  and Kimon Divaris D.

U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 6

U. of Bristol (UK) – 2

Barwon Health
U. of Melbourne (Australia) – 2

Murdoch Children’s Research Institute  (Australia) – 2

Tufts U. – 1

Umea U. (Sweden) – 3

Research Square
Res Sq preprint, version 1,
March 1.
Evidence for clinical subtypes of early childhood caries.
2023 Case Western Reserve U. (Ohio) – 5 Dental Caries in Medicaid-Insured Preschool Children With or Without Special Health Care Needs in Northeast Ohio.
2022 U. of Rochester – 5
U. of Michigan – 1
Mae Fah Luang Univ. (Thailand) – 1
Forsyth Institute (MA) – 2
Cornell U. (NY – 1
Multimodal Data Integration Reveals Mode of Delivery and Snack Consumption Outrank Salivary Microbiome in Association With Caries Outcome in Thai Children.

Midwestern U, (Il) – 1

TeraEarth (CA) – 1

Red Marine Algae Lithothamnion calcareum Supports Dental Enamel Mineralization.
2022 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 2 Fluoride hesitancy: A mixed methods study on decision-making about forms of fluoride.
2022  U. of Iowa (Iowa City) – 2 Impact of Medicaid dental coverage expansion on self-reported tooth loss in low-income adults.
2022 U. of California (Los Angeles) – 12 Investigating Perceptions of Teachers and School Nurses on Child and Adolescent Oral Health in Los Angeles County.
2022 U. of Masschusetts (Amherst) – 2
RAND – 3
Journal of Public Health Dentistry
April 3.
Delivery of fluoride varnish during pediatric medical visits by rurality.
2022 U. of Pittsburgh – 8
West Virginia U. – 2
U. of Michigan – 1

Mothers’ Sources of Child Fluoride Information and Misinformation From Social Connections.
2022 U. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (8)
Mar 28.
Partitioning around medoids clustering andf random forest classification for GIS-informed imputation of fluoride concentration data.
2022 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 3
U. of Iowa – 1*
Understanding topical fluoride hesitancy and refusal behaviors through the extended parallel process model and health belief model.
2022 U. of California (San Francisco) – 3 Proceedings of SPIE–the International Society for Optical Engineering
11942: 1194209.
Mar 4.
Dehydration imaging of dental fluorosis at 1950 nm.
2022 U. of Massachusetts (Amherst) – 2
RAND – 2
Tufts U. – 1
Variation in Current Guidelines for Fluoride Varnish Application for Young Children in Medical Settings in the United States.
2022 U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 8 Partitioning around medoids clustering and random forest classification for GIS-informed imputation of fluoride concentration data.
2022 U. of Iowa (Iowa City) – 2 Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s oral health and oral health care use.
2022  Rand Corporation – 7 , 10775587221074766
Feb 8.
Medicaid Payment and Fluoride Varnish Application During Pediatric Medical Visits.
2022  U. of California (San Francisco) Caries inhibition of simulated active caries lesions with CO2 laser irradiation and fluoride.
2021  U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) Guardian Reports of Children’s Sub-optimal Oral Health Are Associated With Clinically Determined Early Childhood Caries, Unrestored Caries Lesions, and History of Toothaches.

U. of California (San Francisco) – 4 Work site access to fluoridated tap water and retail beverages: An assessment of the University of California, San Francisco campuses.
2021 U. of California (San Francisco) – 4 The oral microbiome: Role of key organisms and complex networks in oral health and disease.
2021 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 3 Fluoride Prescribing Behaviors for Medicaid-Enrolled Children in Oregon.
2021 U. of Iowa (Iowa City) – 5
Indiana U. – 4
Duke U. – 2
U. of Michigan – 1
Tooth Eruption and Early Childhood Caries: A Multisite Longitudinal Study.
2021 Columbia U. –  8
May 7.
Protocol for a family-centered behavioral intervention to reduce early childhood caries: the MySmileBuddy program efficacy trial.
2021 U.of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 10 Pediatric Dentistry
43(3): 191–197.
An Automated Machine Learning Classifier for Early Childhood Caries.
2021 U. of Rochester (NY) – 5 Scientific Reports
Oral microflora and pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
2021 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 2
U. of Alaska (Fairbanks) – 5
International Journal of Circumpolar Health
80(1): 1920779.
Seasonal variation in added sugar or sugar sweetened beverage intake in Alaska native communities: an exploratory study.
2021 U. of California (San Francisco) – 3  JDR Clinical and Translational Research
7(2): 205–214.
California Dentists’ Engagement in Media Advocacy for Sugar Restriction Policies.
2021 U. of Iowa (Iowa City) – 11 Bone
Feb 10.
Effects of fluoride intake on cortical and trabecular bone microstructure at early adulthood using multi-row detector computed tomography (MDCT).
2021 The Dental College of Georgia – 3
Ohio State U. – 1

Jan 11.
Curcumin suppresses cell growth and attenuates fluoride-mediated Caspase-3 activation in ameloblast-like LS8 cells.
2021 U. of Iowa – 1
U. of Florida – 2
Analyzing longitudinal clustered count data with zero inflation: Marginal modeling using the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution.
2021 U. of Massachusetts, Worcester – 1
Harvard School of Dental Medicine – 1
Consultant, Texas – 1
U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 2
A case-control study of topical and supplemental fluoride use and osteosarcoma risk.


17(21). Nov. Cohort Profile: ZOE 2.0-A Community-Based Genetic Epidemiologic Study of Early Childhood Oral Health.
2020 99(12):1321-1331.
July 1.
Oral Health Birth Cohort Studies: Achievements, Challenges, and Potential.
2020 U. of Rochester – 12
*Healthy Baby Network
Nov 23.
Interprofessional collaboration and smartphone use as promising strategies to improve prenatal oral health care utilization among US underserved women: results from a qualitative study.
2020 U. of Iowa – 1
U. of Florida – 2
U. of Louisville – 1
A longitudinal Bayesian mixed effects model with hurdle Conway-Maxwell-Poisson distribution.
2020 U. of Iowa (Iowa City) – 5 Beverage Intakes and Toothbrushing During Childhood Are Associated With Caries at Age 17 Years.
2020 U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hlll) – 1

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT04893681
History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers:20-3273
UG3DE029169 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
21-017-E ( Other Identifier: NIDCR study protocol number )
Phase II, proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial to evaluate dental caries preventive effects of fluoridated bottle water
2020 Virginia Commonwealth U. – 2
U. of Florida – 1
U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 1

Prenatal smoking and the risk of early childhood caries: A prospective cohort study.
2020 U. of California (San Francisco) – 4
Indiana U. – 1

Apr 6.
Maternal and fetal exposures to fluoride during mid-gestation among pregnant women in northern California.
2020 Federal U. of Pelotas, Brazil – 4
U. of Pennsylvania – 2

Mar 1.
Anti-biofilm activity of a novel pit and fissure self-adhesive sealant modified with metallic monomers.
2020 U .of Otago (New Zealand) – 4 Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand
50(1): 35–46.
Feb 4.
The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study: Oral health findings and their implications.
2020 U. of Iowa – 3
Genesis Health System – 1

Jan 1.
Use of the Fluoride Varnish Billing Code in a Tertiary Care Center Setting.
2020 Consultant
Boston U. – 1
U.of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 2
Seoul National U. – 1
Natl. Cancer Institute
Harvard School -1 DentalMedicine
A Case-Control Study of Fluoridation and Osteosarcoma.
2020 U. of Iowa (Iowa City) – 6
Feb 24.

Decline in Dental Fluorosis Severity during Adolescence: A Cohort Study.

-study also funded by
Roy J. Carver Charitable Trust
Delta Dental Foundation

New York University – 6
New York University (Abu Dhabi) – 1
U. of Rochester (NY) – 1
Science Signaling

Fluoride exposure alters Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial function in enamel cells.
Sichuan Agricultural U. (China) – 2
The Dental College of Georgia. – 3
Ohio State U. – 1
Jan 3.
Histone acetyltransferase promotes fluoride toxicity in LS8 cells.


U. of Iowa – 4 32(1):58-64.
Jan 2.
An 8-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Physical Activity and Bone Strength From Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: The Iowa Bone Development Study.
2019 U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 3
Nov 25.
Emulation of Community Water Fluoridation Coverage Across US Counties.
2019 U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 2
US Census Bureau – Consultant
Association Between Water Fluoridation and Income-Related Dental Caries of US Children and Adolescents.
2019 U.of Iowa – 1
Dentist – 1
U.of Alabama at Birmingham – 1
Nov 1.
Models to Predict Future Permanent Tooth Caries Incidence in Children Using Primary Teeth Caries Experience.
2019 U. of Iowa – 4
Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston – 1
U. of Pittsburgh – 2
Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Longitudinal Bone Mineral Content Data From the Iowa Bone Development Study.
2019 Community Water Fluoridation Benefits US Children From Poor Families More Than Those From More Affluent Families.
2019 Children Who Live in Mainly Fluoridated us Counties Have Less Tooth Decay.
2019 U. of Iowa – 4
Indiana U. – 2
U. of Michigan – 1

Jan 1.
Changes in Parental Perceptions of Their Care of Their Children’s Oral Health From Age 1 to 4 Years.
2019 U. of Iowa – 5 119(3):425-434.
Jan 9.
Child and Adolescent Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intakes Are Longitudinally Associated with Higher Body Mass Index z Scores in a Birth Cohort Followed 17 Years.
2019 U. of Iowa – 4
May 1.
Contribution of High School Sport Participation to Young Adult Bone Strength.
2019 Tulane U. – 2
Duke U. – 1
Addis Ababa U. – 2
Augusta U. – 1
U. of Kentucky – 1

Dec 7.
Bone quality in fluoride-exposed populations: A novel application of the ultrasonic method.
2019 U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 6 9(2):e022580.
Feb 1.
Referendum opposition to fluoridation and health literacy: a cross-sectional analysis conducted in three large US cities.
2019 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 8
Washington State U. – 1

Sep 9.
Organizational Readiness to Implement System Changes in an Alaskan Tribal Dental Care Organization.
2019 U. of California (San Francisco) – 9
Harbin Medical U. (China) – 1
Marmara U.(Turkey) – 1
Physiology & Behavior
206: 76–83.
Fluoride Related Changes In Behavioral Outcomes May Relate to Increased Serotonin.
2018 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 2 Surveying Dentists’ Perceptions of Caregiver Refusal of Topical Fluoride.
2018 U. of California (Riverside) – 1
U. of Washington (Seattle) – 1
Parents’ attitudes towards topical fluoride and vaccines for children: Are these distinct or overlapping phenomena?
2018 U. of Iowa – 6
U. of Alabama at Birmingham – 1
Sep 20. Survival analysis of caries incidence in African-American school-aged children.
2018 U. of Iowa – 3
U. of Michigan – 2
Indiana U. – 4
Duke U. – 2
Nationwide Children’s Hospital, OH – 1George Mason U. -1

Sep 11.
Predicting Caries in Medical Settings: Risk Factors in Diverse Infant Groups.
2018 U. of Iowa – 11
Research consultant  -|

Aug 29.
Associations of fluoride intake with children’s cortical bone mineral and strength measures at age 11.
2018  U. of Iowa – 9
Jul 1.

Fluoride intake and cortical and trabecular bone characteristics in adolescents at age 17: A prospective cohort study.


2018 U. of Iowa – 6
May 12.
Longitudinal associations between dental caries increment and risk factors in late childhood and adolescence.
2018 U. of Iowa – 2
U., of Michigan – 1
Indiana U. -3
Duke U. – 1
Feb 1.
Fluoride Use in Health Care Settings: Association with Children’s Caries Risk.
2018 U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 7 149(4):273-280.e3.
Feb 14.
Fluoridation advocacy in referenda where media coverage is balanced yet biased..
2018  U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 2 97(10):1122-1128.
Jun 14.
Water Fluoridation and Dental Caries in U.S. Children and Adolescents.
2018 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 6
Washington State U. – 1

Jun 4.
Dental health aides in Alaska: A qualitative assessment to improve paediatric oral health in remote rural villages.
2018 U. of California (San Francisco) – 1
U. of Connecticut – 1
U. of Washington (Seattle) – 1

Apr 1.
Fluorides and Other Preventive Strategies for Tooth Decay.
2018 U. of California (San Francisco) – 1
Feb 1.
Silver Fluoride as a Treatment for Dental Caries.
2017  U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 2 Two decades of persisting income-disparities in dental caries among U.S. children and adolescents.
2017 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 1 Parent refusal of topical fluoride for their children: clinical strategies and future research priorities to improve evidence-based pediatric dental practice.
2017  U. of Iowa – 8 45(6):538-544.
Jul 3.
Dental caries clusters among adolescents.
2017 U. of Iowa – 3
Marquette U. (WI) – 1

Dec 29.
The relationships between fluoride intake levels and fluorosis of late-erupting permanent teeth.
2017 Ohio State U. -2
U. of Columbus -1
U. of Georgia – 1
4-phenylbutyrate Mitigates Fluoride-Induced Cytotoxicity in ALC Cells.
2017  U. of Colorado – 2
May 4.
Acculturation and Pediatric Minority Oral Health Interventions.
2017 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 3
U. of California (San Francisco)– 5
Sept 1.
Topical silver diamine fluoride for dental caries arrest in preschool children: A randomized controlled trial and microbiological analysis of caries associated microbes and resistance gene expression.
2016 U. of California – 4
July 8.
Acceptability of Salt Fluoridation in a Rural Latino Community in the United States: An Ethnographic Study.
2016 U. of California (San Francisco) – 2
U. of Washington (Seattle) – 1
Jan 1.
UCSF Protocol for Caries Arrest Using Silver Diamine Fluoride: Rationale, Indications and Consent.
2016 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 4
U.Alas Peruanas, Peru – 1
U. Catolica de Santa Maria, Peru – 1
U. Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru – 2
Sept 1.
Milk Sweetened with Xylitol: A Proof-of-Principle Caries Prevention Randomized Clinical Trial.
2016  Indian U. – 6
Jan 22.
Relationship between enamel fluorosis severity and fluoride content.
2016 U. of Iowa – 7
U. of Alabama – 1

Dental Caries in High-risk, School-age African American Children in Alabama: A Six-year Prospective.
2016 U. of Colorado – 10
Apr 1.
A Community-Based Oral Health Intervention in Navajo Nation Head Start: Participation Factors and Contextual Challenges.

U. of Otago, NZ – 6

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke U., NC-1

Jan 1.
Community Water Fluoridation and Intelligence: Prospective Study in New Zealand.
2015 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 2
Initial nonresponse and survey response mode biases in survey research.
2015 U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 5
Indiana U. – 1
Sept 19.
Fluoride Modulates Parathyroid Hormone Secretion in vivo and in vitro.
2015 U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 5
Indiana U. – 1
Cells Tissues Organs

Sep 19.

Fluoride Modulates Parathyroid Hormone Secretion in vivo and in vitro.
2015 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 9
Sept 8.
Dental attendance among low-income women and their children following a brief motivational counseling intervention: A community randomized trial.
2015 Albino J,
Tiwari T.
 U. of Colorado – 2 95(1):35-42.
Oct 15.
Preventing Childhood Caries: A Review of Recent Behavioral Research.
2014 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 1 Caregivers who refuse preventive care for their children: the relationship between immunization and topical fluoride refusal.
2014 U. of  Sao Paulo (Brazil) – 4
U. do Sagrado Coracao (Brazil) – 1
U. of Georgia – 1
U. of North Carolina  (Chapel Hill)- 1
Western U. (London, ON) – 1

Dec 11.
Bone response to fluoride exposure is influenced by genetics.
2014 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 3
U. of Rochester – 1
U. of California (San Francisco) – 1
Aug 18.
Pharmacokinetics of fluoride in toddlers after application of 5% sodium fluoride dental varnish.
2014 U. of Iowa – 9
Sep 11.
Prevalence and incidence of early childhood caries among African-American children in Alabama.
2014 U. of Iowa – 3
U. of Tennessee – 1
, 36(4):342-347.
Jul 1.
Infant breast-feeding and childhood caries: a nine-year study.
2014 U. of  Iowa – 10
* Consultant

93(4): 353–359.
Effects of life-long fluoride intake on bone measures of adolescents: a prospective cohort study.
2014 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 2
July 29.
Evaluation of a parent-designed programme to support tooth brushing of infants and young children.
2014 Ohio State U. – 1
U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 2
U. of Pittsburgh – 1
U. of Washington (Seattle)– 2
Aug 13.
Improving children’s oral health: an interdisciplinary research framework.

U. of California (San Francisco) – 3

*U. of Washington, School of Public Health – 1

Jan 1.

Shades of Decay: The Meanings of Tooth Discoloration and Deterioration to Mexican Immigrant Caregivers of Young Children.
2014 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 2
Griffith U. (Australia) – 1
Cluster-randomized xylitol toothpaste trial for early childhood caries prevention.
2014 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 8
Klamath County Public Health – 1
Feb 24.
Treatment fidelity of brief motivational interviewing and health education in a randomized clinical trial to promote dental attendance of low-income mothers and children: Community-Based Intergenerational Oral Health Study “Baby Smiles“.
2013 U. of Californoria (San Francisco) Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology

Sociodemographic disparities and behavioral factors in clinical oral health status during pregnancy.
2013 U. of  North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 5
Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research – 2
U. of Texas – 1
Tooth-surface-specific effects of xylitol: randomized trial results.
2013 U. of North Carolina (Chapel Hill) – 5
Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research – 1
U. of Texas – 1

Apr 15.
Tooth-surface-specific effects of xylitol: randomized trial results.
2013 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 7
Klamath County Public Health – 1

Aug 6.
Design of a community-based intergenerational oral health study: “Baby Smiles”.
2012 .

U. of Iowa – 6
U. of Pittsburgh – 3
Washington U., MO – 1
Apr 13.
Genetic and environmental factors associated with dental caries in children: the Iowa Fluoride Study.
2012 Case Western University – 3 91(9):859-864.
Jul 20.
Early maternal psychosocial factors are predictors for adolescent caries.
Dept of Oral Sciences, School of Dentistry , Dunedin, NZ – 3
Dept of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, U. of Otago, Dunedin,  NZ – 1
Jan 19.
Maternal oral health predicts their children’s caries experience in adulthood.
2011 School of Dentistry, Dunedin, NZ – 3

*Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College, London, UK – 2
*Duke U. North Carolina -2
Dunedin School of Medicine, NZ – 1

Oct 24.
Family history and oral health: findings from the Dunedin Study.
2011 1, 3, 7. Harvard
2. Tufts Medical Center
4.Georgia School of Dentistry
5. U. of Puerto Rico
6.National Cancer Institute
Journal of Dental Research
90(10): 1171–1176.
An Assessment of Bone Fluoride and Osteosarcoma.
2010 U. of North Carolina – 4 89(12):1395-1400.
Oct 5.
Oral health literacy among female caregivers: impact on oral health outcomes in early childhood.
2010  U. of Florida
89(9): 1002–1006.

Fluoride and chlorhexidine release from filled resins.
2010 Forsyth Institute – 5 The Acid Test of Fluoride: How pH Modulates Toxicity.
2010 U. of California (San Francisco) – 4 Water consumption beliefs and practices in a rural Latino community: implications for fluoridation.
2009  U. of Washington (Seattle) – 3 21(1):44-47.
July 31.
Xylitol and its vehicles for public health needs.
2009`  U. of Washington (Seattle) – 3 2(2):22-31.
Jan 1.
Estimating Fluoride Exposure in Rural Communities: A Case Study in Western Washington.
2009 U. of Maryland – 1*
Nov 1.
Update on early childhood caries since the Surgeon General’s Report.
2009 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 3 The challenge of sedation with adolescents: case studies and clinical recommendations.
2009 U. of Iowa – 1
U. of Washington (Seattle)-1
May 1.
Preventive dental service utilization for Medicaid-enrolled children in New Hampshire: a comparison of care provided by pediatric dentists and general dentists.
2009 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 2 Fluoridated toothpaste and the prevention of early childhood caries: a failure to meet the needs of our young.
2009 Marquette U. (WI) – 3
U. of Alabama – 1
Boston U. – 1
Increased Children’s Access to Fluoride Varnish Treatment by Involving Medical Care Providers: Effect of a Medicaid Policy Change.
2008 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 5 15(7):876-882.
Feb 2.
Empowering Head Start to improve access to good oral health for children from low income families.
2008 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 3 122(4):e805-14.
Oct 1.
Linking mother and child access to dental care.
Age-specific fluoride exposure in drinking water and osteosarcoma (United States).
Faculty of Dentistry, U. of Otago, NXZ – 2
Dunedin School of Medicine, U. of Otago, NZ – 1
85(4):339-343 .
Apr 1.
Oral health beliefs in adolescence and oral health in young adulthood.
2005 Dept. of Clinical Dentistry, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. Fluoride concentrations in enamel and dentin of primary teeth after pre- and postnatal fluoride exposure.
2004 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 1
U. of California (San Francisco) – 1
U. of Michigan – 1
New York U. – 1

Oct 1.
Improving America’s access to care: The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research addresses oral health disparities.
2003 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 2
March 1.
Xylitol and dental caries: an overview for clinicians.
2003 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 2
Oct 1.
2003 U. of California (San Fracisco) – 6 The association of early childhood caries and race/ethnicity among California preschool children.
2002 U. of Iowa  – 7 Primary tooth fluorosis and fluoride intake during the first year of life.
2001 Loma Linda U. – 2 228(1-2):91-98.
Dec 1.
Differential effects of bacterial toxins on mitogenic actions of sodium fluoride and those of aluminum fluoride in human TE85 osteosarcoma cells.

U. of Washington (Seattle) – 5

Note: Drs. Milgrom and Kharasch have served as paid consultants to Pharmascience Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

132(10):1389-92; quiz 1459-60.
Oct 1.
Evaluation of fluoride release from commercially available fluoride varnishes.

* Consultant

Intra-oral distribution of dental fluorosis in Newburgh and Kingston, New York.
2000 U. of Washington (Seattle)  – 2
115(5):448-459 .
Increasing access to dental care for medicaid preschool children: the Access to Baby and Child Dentistry (ABCD) program.
1999 Medical College of Georgia – 4 Dental caries and fluorosis among children in a rural Georgia area.
1999 Medical College of Georgia – 1
U. of Oslo (Norway) – 3
Caries Research
Fingernail fluoride: a method for monitoring fluoride exposure.
1999 U. of Washington (Seattle) – 4 114(6):528-532.
Nov 1.
A community strategy for Medicaid child dental services.
1999 Medical College of Georgia – 3
Fluoride in whole saliva, parotid ductal saliva and plasma in children.
1999 Medical College of Georgia – 2 129(6):1209-121.
June 1.
Chronic fluoride ingestion decreases 45Ca uptake by rat kidney membranes – pdf
1999 Medical College of Georgia – 2
Jan 1.
Effects of caffeine on fluoride, calcium and phosphorus metabolism and calcified tissues in the rat.
1998 Medical College of Georgia – 4 1372(2):244-254.
July 1.
pH-dependent fluoride transport in intestinal brush border membrane vesicles.
University of Iowa College of Denstitry, Iowa City
19(1):50-55 .
Jan 1.
Patterns of fluoride dentifrice use among infants.
College of Dentistry, The U. of Iowa, Iowa City. – 4

Jul 1.
Fluoride concentrations of infant foods.
1997 Office of Oral Health, Arizona Department of Health Services, Phoenix
112(4):319-29; 330-1.
July 1.
Dental caries prevalence and treatment levels in Arizona preschool children.
1997 ,

April 1.
Fluoride at mitogenic doses induces a sustained activation of p44mapk, but not p42mapk, in human TE85 osteosarcoma cells.
1997 Determinants and mechanisms of enamel fluorosis.
1996 19(6):595-601.
Dec 1.
High fluoride intakes cause osteomalacia and diminished bone strength in rats with renal deficiency.
1996 Fluoride at mitogenic concentrations increases the steady state phosphotyrosyl phosphorylation level of cellular proteins in human bone cells.
1996 Assessing fluoride concentrations of juices and juice-flavored drinks.
1996 Turner CH, Owan I, Brizendine EJ, Zhang W, Wilson ME, Dunipace AJ
Dec 1,
High fluoride intakes cause osteomalacia and diminished bone strength in rats with renal deficiency.
1995 126(12):1625-1632.
Dec 1.
Infants’ fluoride ingestion from water, supplements and dentifrice.
1995 Pretreatment with low doses of norethindrone potentiates the osteogenic effects of fluoride on human osteosarcoma cells.
1995 74(7):1399-1407.
July 1.
Infants’ fluoride intake from drinking water alone, and from water added to formula, beverages, and food.
Aug 1.
Fluoride reduces bone strength in older rats.
May 1.
Enamel uptake and patient exposure to fluoride: comparison of APF gel and foam.
Karolinska Institute, Sweden – 1
Jan 1.
Fluorosis-like effects of acidosis, but not NH+4, on rat incisor enamel.
1995 126(12):1617-1624.
Dec 1.
Risk of fluorosis in a fluoridated population. Implications for the dentist and hygienist.
1994 Medical College of Georgia – 3  Pediatric Dentistry
In vitro effect of human saliva on the output of fluoride from controlled-release devices.
1994 Medical College of Georgia – 1
May 1.
Effects of plasma fluoride and dietary calcium concentrations on GI absorption and secretion of fluoride in the rat.
1994 Medical College of Georgia – 2
June 1.
Lack of significant effect of coffee and caffeine on fluoride metabolism in rats.
1992 Medical College of Georgia – 1
May 1.
Acute and chronic fluoride toxicity.
1992 Medical College of Georgia – 2
Clemson U. (SC) – 1
Feb 1.
The effects of protein deficiency and fluoride on bone mineral content of rat tibia.
1992 Medical College of Georgia – 2 Fluoride release from three glass ionomer materials and the effects of varnishing with or without finishing.
1991 Loma Linde U. – 3 Aluminum stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro by a mechanism that is different from fluoride.
1991 Medical College of Georgia – 3 A comparative study of fluoride pharmacokinetics in five species.
1991 Medical College of Georgia – 1 Fluoride, calcium and phosphorus metabolism in the rat: comparison of ‘natural ingredient’ with semipurified diets.
1990 School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor – 2 Water-borne fluoride and cortical bone mass: a comparison of two communities.

U. of Iowa (Iowa City) – 1

School of Dentistry, Huddinge, Sweden

Am. Dental Associ. Health Foundation, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD

69 Spec No:550-5; discussion 556-7.
Feb 1.
Pharmacokinetics of fluoride in man and its clinical relevance.
1990 Medical College of Georgia- 1
69 Spec No:539-49; discussion 556-7.
Feb 1.
The physiological and toxicological characteristics of fluoride.

Karolinska Institute, Sweden – 1

Medical College of Georgia- 1

Environmental and physiological factors affecting dental fluorosis.
1990 Forsyth Dental Center, Boston.
69 Spec No:606-13; discussion 634-6 .
Feb 1.
Physicochemical perspectives on the cariostatic mechanisms of systemic and topical fluorides.


Medical College of Georgia – 1

Influence of coffee on fluoride metabolism in rats.
1990 University of Uppsala, Sweden – 1
Medical College of Georgia – 1

Jan 1.
Enamel and dentin fluoride levels and fluorosis following single fluoride doses: a nuclear microprobe study.
1990 Diurnal fluoride concentration in whole saliva in children living in a high- and a low-fluoride area.
Jan 1.
Studies on fluoride excretion in human whole saliva and its relation to flow rate and plasma fluoride levels.
1989 Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis – 5 68(11):1525-1528.
Nov 1.
Genotoxic evaluation of chronic fluoride exposure: micronucleus and sperm morphology studies.
1989 School of Dentistry, Karolinska Institutet,  Sweden.  – 4
68(2):146-149 .
Feb 1.
Studies on fluoride concentrations in human submandibular/sublingual saliva and their relation to flow rate and plasma fluoride levels.
1989 Medical College of Georgia – 1
Jan 1.
The metabolism and toxicity of fluoride.

1. U. of Texas


34(11):885-888 .
Jan 1.
The distribution of fluoride of prenatal origin in the rat–a pilot study.
1988 67(5):802-806.
May 1.
Dental caries, fluorosis, and fluoride exposure in Michigan schoolchildren.
1988 Dept of Oral Biology and Program in Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, U. of Minnesota, Minneapolis,
– 5
March 1.
Retention of skeletal fluoride during bone turnover in rats.
1987 Medical College of Georgia – 3
May 1.
Topical fluorides: effects on physiologic and biochemical processes.
1987 Medical College of Georgia – 1
Fluoride in dental products: safety considerations.
1986 Dept of Oral Biology, Eastman Dental Center, Rochester,  NY – 3 65(3):421-423.
March 1.
Dental caries prevalence in Texas schoolchildren using water supplies with high and low lithium and fluoride.
1986 Medical College of Georgia – 2 Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels.

School of Dentistry, U. of Minnesota – 2

Dept of Human Nutrition and Food, Howard U., Washington, DC – 1

Nov 1.
Dietary fluoride intake of 15-19-year-old male adults residing in the United States.
1985 Dietary fluoride intake of 6-month and 2-year-old children in four dietary regions of the United States.
July 1.
Attitudes of dentists and physicians toward the use of dietary fluoride supplements.
1985 National Taiwan University, College of Medicine, School of Dentistry,  Taiwan – 1
Am Dental Assoc Health Foundation Research Unit, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD – 2
Enhanced fluoride uptake from mouthrinses.
1985 American Dental Association Health Foundation Research Unit, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md.
Jan 1.
Enamel fluoride profile construction from biopsy data.
1984  N/A
May 1.
Fluoride therapy in metabolic bone disease.
1984 Medical College of Georgia -2 36(3):302-307.
May 1.
Fluoride absorption: the influence of gastric acidity.
1984 Medical College of Georgia – 5 Surface changes in rat gastric mucosa induced by sodium fluoride: a scanning electron microscopic study.

Medical College of Georgia – 5

Dept of Clinical Investigation Dwight David Eisenhower Medical Center, Fort Gordon, Georgia – 1

Oct 1.
The effects of fluoride on the gastric mucosa of the rat
1983 Medical College of Georgia -1 Fluorides: metabolism, mechanisms of action and safety.
1983 Leeds Dental Institute, Clarendon Way, Leeds, UK. Combined effect of trace elements and fluoride on caries: changes over ten years in northwest Ohio (U.S.A.).

Karolinska Institute, Sweden – 1

Medical College of Georgia – 1

Jan 1.
Plasma fluoride levels and enamel fluorosis in the rat.
1982 Dept of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, U. of California – 3 61(2):403-407.
Fwb 1.
Transformation of calcium fluoride for caries prevention.

School of Dentistry, Medical College of Virginia – 1

School of Dentistry, Medical College of Georgia – 1

March 1.
Pharmacokinetics of fluoride from APF gel and fluoride tablets in children.
1982 Medical College of Georgia – 3 2(6):303-306.
Dec 1.
Fluoride absorption through the hamster cheek pouch: a pH-dependent event.
1982 Dept of Biochemistry, Indiana U., School of Medicine, Indianapolis 27(2):107-112.
Jan 1.
The effects of fluoridated water on rat urine and tissue cAMP levels.
1981 Metabolic Section, Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, IL
Jan 1.
Studies of fluoride metabolism in man. A review and report of original data.
1981 N/A 18(4):258-278.
Oct 1.
Diagnosis of bone disease by core biopsies.
1981 College of Dentistry,  U. of Iowa, Iowa City – 2 J 60(11):1842-1848.
Nov 1.
The effect of topical fluoride agents on fluoride uptake and surface morphology.
1981 Metabolic Section, Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, Illinois .
Mar 1.
Effect of aluminum hydroxide on plasma fluoride and fluoride excretion during a high fluoride intake in man.
1981 School of Dentistry, Medical College of Georgia – 1 The biologic availability of fluoride from alginate impressions and APF gel applications in children.
1980 Metabolic Section, Veterans Administration Hospital, Hines, Ill. – 6 140(10):1331-1335.
Oct 1.
Fluoride metabolism in patients with chronic renal failure.
Experimental Biology and Medicine
Fluoride Tissue Distribution: Intracellular Fluoride Concentrations.
1980 Effect of NaF on rat tissue cAMP levels in vivo.
1980 Forsyth Dental Center The anticaries effect of single and combined topical fluoride systems in school children.
1974 Forsyth Dental Center- 2 Effects of fluoride supplementation from birth on human deciduous and permanent teeth.



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